Autores: Letícia Kreutz Rosa, Floriatan Santos Costa, Cecília Moraes Hauagge, Rafael Zancan Mobile, Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima, Clarice D. B. Amaral, Raquel C. Machado, Ana Rita A. Nogueira, João Armando Brancher e Melissa Rodrigues de Araujo
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Background: Schizophrenia (SCZ) presents complex challenges related to diagnosis and clinical monitoring. The study of conditions associated with SCZ can be facilitated by using potential markers and patterns that provide information to support the diagnosis and oral health. Methods: The salivary composition of patients diagnosed with SCZ (n = 50) was evaluated and compared to the control (n = 50). Saliva samples from male patients were collected and clinical parameters were evaluated. The concentration of total proteins and amylase were determined and salivary macro- and microelements were quantified by ICP OES and ICP-MS. Exploratory data analysis based on artificial intelligence tools was used in the investigation. Results: There was a significant increase in the salivary concentrations of Al, Fe, Li, Mg, Na, and V, higher prevalence of caries (p < 0.001), periodontal disease (p < 0.001), and reduced salivary flow rate (p = 0.019) in SCZ patients. Also, samples were grouped into six clusters. As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, and Sr were correlated with each other, while Fe, K, Li, Ti, and V showed the highest concentrations in the samples distributed in the clusters with the highest association between SZC patients and controls. Conclusions: The results obtained indicate changes in salivary flow, organic composition, and levels of macro- and microelements in SCZ patients. Salivary concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Na may be related to oral conditions, higher prevalence of caries, and periodontal disease. The exploratory analysis showed different patterns in the salivary composition of SCZ patients impacted by associations between oral health conditions and the use of medications. Future studies are encouraged to confirm the results investigated in this study.